WWI—Part Seven: Turkey Joins the War

ataturk-and-the-young-turksAt the turn of the 20th century, the Ottoman Empire was in a state of terminal decline. In 1908 Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina. Three years later the Italian bourgeoisie proclaimed its colonial ambitions by grabbing Libya in North Africa from the Ottomans. Later they seized the islands of Rhodes and Kos. A year later a league of Balkan nations drove the Ottomans from their last foothold in Europe.

WWI—Part Six: Tsarist Russia and the War

German soldiers Battle of Marne WWIIn the bloody struggle for world domination Russia entered as a second-rate partner of the Entente. The apparent strength of the Russian Empire concealed its internal contradictions and fundamental weaknesses. Russian tsarism combined elements of a semifeudal, semicolonial country, heavily dependent upon foreign capital, with the aggressive characteristics of imperialism. Indeed, despite the economic backwardness of Russia, which never exported a single kopek of capital, Lenin included it as one of the five main imperialist countries.

The Greek Revolution and Civil War: 70 Years Since the Battle of Athens—Part Two

In October 1944, the last German soldiers left Greece, and on the 12th ELAS, the Greek People's Liberation Army, moved into Athens. The atmosphere among1944 Soldiers fighting in town-December44 the masses was electric, especially in the working class neighborhoods. Not only had they expelled the hated Nazi occupation, but they could feel that power was there for the taking. (Part 2 of 2)

The Greek Revolution and Civil War: 70 Years Since the Battle of Athens—Part One

1944 Soldiers fighting in town-December44On December 3, 1944, British snipers, the Athens police, and fascist paramilitaries opened fire on a demonstration of communist sympathizers in Athens’ Syntagma Square, leaving 28 dead. They were protesting against the provocations of the Greek bourgeois parties and the British imperialists, who were trying to derail and crush the mass revolutionary movement that had defeated the Nazis. Thus began the Battle of Athens.

Cuba 50 Years Later—Where is the Revolution Going?

Given the recent developments in the relations between Cuba and the United States, and the coming anniversary of the Revolution on January 1, we are republishing this important article from 2009. The Cuban Revolution, on the basis of its nationalized planned economy and the Cuban people's willingness to defend it, has endured for decades despite being so closely situated to the most powerful imperialist power on Earth. As this article points out however, the Revolution is under increasing threat of capitalist restoration, and its fate is inextricably linked to the world revolution