Trotsky in January 1917: “Bronx Man Leads Russian Revolution”

Image result for leon trotsky in his thirtiesMany people familiar with 20th Century history know that when the Russian working class overthrew the tsar in February 1917, Lenin was in exile in Switzerland, soon to return to Petrograd in the famous sealed train. But where was Trotsky before returning to the maelstrom?

60 Years Since the Hungarian Revolution of 1956

Hungary 1956_-commons.wikimedia.org--wiki--File---Szétlőtt_harckocsi_a_Móricz_Zsigmond_körtéren.jpgOctober 23 sees the anniversary of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. That movement of the Hungarian masses signified the culmination of the growing discontent evident in Eastern Europe at the time. 

We are republishing this article on the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, first published on the 40th anniversary in Socialist Appeal.

 

42 Years Since the Portuguese Revolution

Today marks the 42nd anniversary of the Portuguese Revolution. On this occasion we recommend the following analysis, written by Alan Woods in 1974.

On Kautsky’s “Foundations of Christianity”

Religion is not the motor force of history, but great social changes are expressed in changes in religion. In his book Ludwig Feuerbach and the End of Classical German Philosophy Engels explained that great historical turning points have been accompanied by religious changes in the case of Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam. The mass movements that were aroused by these beliefs in the early period of both Islam and Christianity shook the world.

Early Christianity arose at a time of upheaval and change associated with the crisis of slave society. The rise of Christianity is one of the most extraordinary phenomena in history. Despite the most ferocious persecution, the Christians won mass support until the new religion was eventually recognized by the Emperor Constantine. From being a revolutionary movement of the poor and oppressed, the Church was absorbed into the state to become a formidable weapon in the hands of the rich and powerful.

WWI—Part Eleven: Wilfred Owen and the Muse of War

Wilfred Owen plate from Poems (1920).jpg“The people of England needn’t hope. They must agitate.” (Wilfred Owen, letter to his mother)

It has been said that when the cannons are heard, the muses are silent. In a general sense that is true. The thunder of war drowns out the voice of the poet and the artist. The grim poetry of artillery shells, hand grenades and machine guns is far stronger than the weak voice of human beings protesting against the monstrous cannibalism that periodically disrupts the old equilibrium and threatens to destroy the conditions of civilized existence. However, to every rule there is an exception.