The Puzzle of Productive and Unproductive Labor

digging-a-holeIn their desperate search for profitable fields of investment, the capitalist class, especially the financial oligarchy, has presided over an explosive growth of unproductive expenditure that today threatens to undermine the very edifice of capitalism. As more and more surplus value is siphoned off into unproductive activities, the issue of “productive” and “unproductive” labor has once again resurfaced as a factor contributing to, and a reflection of, the present terminal decline of world capitalism.

WWI—Part Three: The Strange Story of the Kaiser and the Tsar

german-revolution-ends-horror-of-war-2The Austrian attack on Serbia did not lead immediately to war with Russia. In St. Petersburg the generals were impatient to take action. However, Russian foreign minister Sazonov seems not to have shared the blind confidence of his generals. He feared the effects of war on the unstable political situation in Russia and was not convinced that the Russian army could win in a conflict with the formidable German military machine.

The French Revolution

anonymous - prise de la bastilleOn the 225th anniversary of the storming of the Bastille we publish here an article by Alan Woods which was originally written in 1989 to commemorate 200 years of the Great French Revolution, with a new introduction by the author. Alan Woods explains the internal dynamics of the revolution and above all the role played by the masses.

 

 

WWI—Part Two: On the Brink of the Abyss

Wilhelm II inspecting troopsSelf-styled philosophers of the post-modernist kind deny the possibility of finding any rational explanations for human history. It is alleged that there are no general laws, no objective factors that lie behind the conduct of individuals and determine their psychology and behavior. From this standpoint—the standpoint of extreme subjectivity—all history is determined by individuals acting according to their own free will. To attempt to find some inner logic in this turbulent and lawless sea would be as futile an exercise as to try to predict the precise momentum and position of an individual subatomic particle.